It is strength in the fact that it is unachievable as it gives the individual something to move toward and helps with the progression of society over time. It also answers one of the criticisms levelled at utopian writing in that the writers should concentrate on changing what is already wrong with society rather than dreaming of unachievable goals. What is shown is an attack on the way in which society is run and although not an outright attack on traditional values and sovereignty, it is a challenge to the status quo.
Rather than simply dreaming up unachievable goals, they challenge the perceived norms and imbalances in power that the writers have observed in their respective societies. By challenging tradition and what is perceived as common sense, utopian writing does tackle the wrongs in society by making people aware of them and sharing an idea of utopia with others, it provides society with a goal to move toward. Rather than providing a quick fix solution to the problems in society, a long-term goal is provided so that society may progress over time to strive for but never achieve. To paraphrase Locke, life without struggle becomes inert.
Utopias and Utopianism keep society struggling and mobile. It also plays with the Christian concepts of Eden and harmony. Most importantly it discusses issues that did go on to stimulate thought and action by others in society. It showed a society in which law, social pressure and conscience converged in the direction of goodness. It is in this discussion of the individual versus society that More tackles another of the key issues of utopian thought and writing.
The tackling of this issue has been criticised by some as not a utopia but as dystopia. Indeed to someone like Locke the lack of private property may seem like a dystopian nightmare. The phrase "American schools" includes pre-, elementary, intermediate, and high schools; public and private colleges; technical schools; adult schools; schools with and without uniform requirements; schools in conservative Midwestern towns and those in diverse urban areas; religious schools; progressive schools—too many schools, too many populations of students to discuss all at once.
Many urban-area public schools are weighing the advantages and disadvantages of requiring students to wear uniforms, and quite a few are deciding that uniforms are the way to go for several reasons. The poorly formulated thesis A thesis should treat a discussable point-that is, a topic that merits discussion because more than one point of view is sane and plausible.
While it is possible, for example, to support the following statements, the resulting paper would likely not be very interesting because the points are not discussable:.
A dog is a four-legged domestic mammal. A friend is someone who is always there for you. Humans need oxygen to live. Dogs are smelly, dumb, destructive eating machines, and I couldn't live without mine. My friend Brad uses humor to encourage me to set high standards for myself.
In the absence of free oxygen, very different life forms might have emerged on earth. Even a discussable thesis can fail to make its point clear. This is frustrating to the reader, who at the very least is entitled to a clear statement of your claim unless it is obviously implied—a technique not recommended for beginners!
Compare the following vague theses with the stronger examples given above:.
Some Common Weakness Illustrated, Carson Cistulli's first book, is a series of unexpected meditations on overlooked parts of life. Combining formalism with. The poems in Some Common Weakness Illustrated are like a series of unexpected meditations on overlooked parts of life. Carson Cistulli's poems shed light on.
What do most people think about dogs? Are they man's best friend or worst enemy? In my estimation, a sense of humor is a valuable thing. Oxygen is especially vital for animal life forms. Inadequate or unfocused topic sentences Do not, out of enthusiasm, haste, or laziness, abandon the basics of paragraph structure for paragraphs subsequent to your thesis statement. From start to finish the paper should follow a consistent progression leading coherently to a reasonable, well thought out conclusion.
Therefore, make sure every single paragraph in your paper contains its own clearly stated topic sentence as well as the specific details to support each, though not necessarily in that order—the following example, for instance, starts with an illustration and concludes with a topic sentence:.
At George Washington Junior High School, after students had been wearing uniforms only five months, groups of students who formerly occupied separate areas of the lunch yard began sitting closer to each other and talking to each other more. School administrators concluded that the wearing of school uniforms had obscured the socioeconomic differences between students and resulted in more social mixing between the groups. Wearing school uniforms is socially good for junior high school students. In short, fuzziness in topic sentences suggests fuzziness in thinking.
If you settle for vagueness in your topic sentences, you will be more likely to write off-topic or jump around from topic to topic. Clarifying your topic sentence—clarifying your thinking—will go a long way toward producing an organized and convincing paper. Writing off-subject Your thesis statement is a promise to your reader about what you will cover in your paper.
Don't write "off" this subject; don't include sentences that do not support or elaborate on this main idea. For instance, if your thesis statement for an expository "process" paper is "Making a set of bookshelves requires precise skills," don't include sentences describing your favorite author or the kinds of books you plan to place in the bookshelves.
If your thesis statement for a descriptive paper is "My room is a place of refuge," don't include more than incidental references to the other parts of the house or to your neighborhood. A narrative sometimes seems particularly difficult to contain within the confines of a thesis statement. In contrast, no association between d8 and flowering time was detected in the inbred panel when accounting for population structure. However, this spurious association was still detectable in the traditional landraces panel, including Andean material that has no relationship to the Northern Flint material.
The d8 gene produces a signaling factor involved in the gibberellin pathway. Gibberellins are types of endogenous plant growth regulators . In maize, these are dominant, gain-of-function mutations, suggesting that d8 is a negative regulator. Conversely, recessive mutants of the GAI gene in Arabidopsis result in loss-of-function, specifically in polypeptides truncated upstream of the SH2-like domain. As a consequence, the gene product does not function as a negative regulator, resulting in normal height phenotypes .
Two evolutionary processes have likely impacted the d8 locus. First, the associated allele, specifically the 6 bp indel reported in Thornsberry et al. Maize originated from southern Mexico, where there are long growing seasons and high temperatures. As maize agriculture expanded from Mexico through the Southwestern United States to the Eastern United States with its shorter growing season and lower temperatures , a severe bottleneck occurred in maize diversity, resulting in the Northern Flint subpopulation . The bottleneck created extensive long range LD in this subpopulation.
Northern Flints were substantially isolated from all other maize subpopulations  until the introduction of the Southern Dents in the s . The tb1 locus lost much of its diversity during the domestication process  , . The original d8 study  identified evidence of purifying selection with substantial diversity loss; however, there was little LD identified in the region between d8 and tb1. Although unconfirmed, some Northern Flint allied germplasm e. It is likely that the region around d8 and tb1 has been through a bottleneck with multiple selective sweeps, resulting in complex extended haplotypes.
Most of the loci controlling flowering time in maize have been identified through QTL studies. Of these, only d8 and vegetative to generative transition 1 vgt1 have been confirmed with association and fine mapping . Located on chromosome 8, vgt1 is arguably the most important flowering time locus in maize.
The association between vgt1 and flowering time is supported by a study conducted in the maize nested association mapping NAM population, where a major QTL was identified in this region . This study also detected an allelic series at this QTL, suggesting that more than one causative allele is present. One of these alleles is from northern germplasm and is in linkage with a MITE whose association with early flowering time was confirmed in the NAM population .
Although the lack of the vgt1 early flowering allele did not completely explain the late flowering time, a SNP identified in the ZmRap2. An association study by Ducrocq et al.
Both studies accounted for population structure. Compared to Salvi et al. In the case of d8 , the association between the site and the trait becomes less significant, and even undetectable, when increasing the number of lines examined. This supports no association between the 6 bp indel in d8 and flowering time in maize. Including d8 in the model when performing association mapping for flowering time does not change the result for the SNPs in vgt1 . This indicates that there is no interaction between the two loci.
The purpose of this study was to reanalyze the work of Thornsberry et al.
This study compared association results from various statistical approaches using a maize diversity panel and the NAM population  , . The results from the Thornsberry et al.
Our reanalysis of the two sites using the Q model and a significantly larger association panel consisting of lines resulted in less significant associations at both loci Table 1. By increasing the number of lines we are able to obtain a larger sample size within each of the subpopulations and thus, more accurately estimate the underlying population structure i. Sampling has a larger effect on some sites than others. The 6 bp indel is more significantly associated with flowering time in the smaller population 92 lines than it is in the association panel analyzed with MLM K model without controlling for population structure, but controlling for familial relatedness.
The site is, in fact, carried by Northern Flint lines, which are underrepresented in the smaller population. The results for the association panel suggest that the GLM Q approach overestimates the association. The proportion of the genetic variation explained by the different models varies significantly. The reason for the minimal difference between the two models is that K most likely controls for the majority of the relatedness between individuals.
This study confirms the weak association between the 6 bp indel in d8 and flowering time analyzed using both GLM and MLM approaches Table 1. However, the association is not as significant as previously reported by Thornsberry et al. Additionally, the GLM and MLM analyses of the association panel imply there is no association between the 18 bp deletion in d8 and flowering time Table 1. We also sequenced a 3 bp indel ,, bp , which is present in tropical late-flowering lines when we examined sequences available at NCBI.
However, new genotypic data for the association panel suggest that there is no association between this site and variation in flowering time in maize Table 1. Our study confirms the results presented by Camus-Kulandaivelu et al. Association mapping of d8 on other traits results in a number of weak associations with other traits, in addition to flowering time e. All the associations are in the same range of significance as flowering time.
No clear pattern can be observed between correlation among traits except for what can be expected e. Collectively, these results undermine the conclusion that d8 is of more importance for flowering time than any of the other traits. No clear pattern can be observed between correlation between traits and its association to the 6 bp and 18 bp deletions in d8. From a genome-wide perspective, there were a large number of sites with a similar degree of association from the MLM approach with flowering time as d8 Figure 2A.
The contrasting results from the various models fitted at the SNPs in the genomic regions surrounding d8 and tb1 are illustrated in Figure 2B and 2C. GWAS results for flowering time days to silking using three models in the chromosomal region surrounding tb1 Chr. Black markers on the right are significant SNPs located within d8. Black markers on the left are significant SNPs located within tb1.
In the initial study by Thornsberry et al. The d8 polymorphism should be in three of the mapping families, and modest effects are seen in the right direction for all three, but the estimated effect is always less than half a day. Dark gray bar shows QTL effect estimate at marker position It is quite possible that the mapping position of these joint linkage QTL could be synthetic, but there is little to no support for a QTL in this exact region. This approach in the NAM population offers in-depth power and resolution because it utilizes both historic and recent recombination.
No significant sites were identified in the region of d8 Figure S5. This supports the result that d8 is not associated with flowering time. Hapmap data  ,  suggest extended haplotypes for Northern Flint lines in the region of d8. Data show modest F st between temperate and tropical subpopulations. However, there could potentially be differences in diversity between these two groups and Northern Flint lines. Hapmap data are only available for a few Northern Flint lines, which limits these studies. GBS SNPs were used to examine the range of LD decay within the different subpopulations Northern Flint, stiff stalk, non-stiff stalk, and tropical of the association panel.
Extended LD is observed for the Northern Flint lines compared to the other subpopulations. Likewise, the stiff stalk lines, which were only founded from 16 inbred lines, also show a pattern of extended haplotypes, although not as extreme as the Northern Flints Figure 4. The extended haplotype pattern in the Northern Flints make it difficult to control for false positives and to identify the causative SNP using association mapping. White dot indicates median R 2 for each bin. This graph shows that there is more extended LD in Northern Flint than in other subpopulations.
The 6 bp indel in d8 is carried by Northern Flint lines. This is additional evidence that extended haplotypes exist in the Northern Flint lines in the d8 region. In fact, there are two regions with high LD at 20 Mbp and 0. To test for two-way interaction between the 6 bp and 18 bp indels and the MITE, a series of mixed models including two-way interaction terms were fitted.
However, this association is not likely to be statistically significant after controlling for the multiple testing problem across the entire genome. Red dots indicate results from 7, 55K SNPs present in or more of the lines. The results underscore the importance of properly accounting for population structure in association studies. The analysis in Thornsberry et al. This subdivision did not fully account for population structure, and thus, the effect of the d8 allele carried by Northern Flint lines was overestimated.
It is especially important to control for the latter with traits such as flowering time, which is highly correlated with population structure. In general mixed models sufficiently account for population structure and familial relatedness. In contrast, false positives arising from other sources, although rare, are typically unaccounted for in association studies.
For example, spurious associations could arise from markers that are in long-range LD with causative polymorphisms. Additionally, causative polymorphisms for one trait may not necessarily be causal for another highly correlated trait and, hence a spurious association , but will be statistically associated with both traits. Finally, when a trait is controlled by multiple loci in LD, it is likely that the site with the largest effect is an indirect association.
One reason for this result arises from differing minor allele frequencies among the causal sites. All three of these types of false positives do not occur randomly across the genome and thus, they are more challenging to eliminate.
Haplotype-based association studies is one approach for addressing many of these issues. Nevertheless, multiple sites, selection for multiple traits, and population structure result in spurious associations and these need to be accounted for when performing association studies. Association mapping is limited when the trait analyzed is correlated with population structure. However, linkage mapping can overcome this problem by crossing individuals with known relatedness, spurious associations can be broken.
In this study, we were able to detect a small QTL at the general location of d8. Association results suggest that the majority of the QTL effects detected around d8 are from rare extended haplotypes that include other linked QTLs. Another possible explanation for the weakness of the QTLs detected is the population sampled. The associated haplotype is present only in Northern Flint lines, which are underrepresented in the population. Flowering time is strongly correlated with population structure. Our study showed that d8 had a very small effect on flowering time. One possible explanation for this result is that d8 is associated with another trait that was selected along with flowering time e.